Smart Cities and Infrastructure Research Cluster

The Smart Cities Research Cluster (SCRC) seeks to promote and advance the efficient design, planning and delivery of urban environments and services through the use of spatially integrated information and communication technology.

About Us

Rapid developments in technology and global urbanisation forces have transformed cities into intensive laboratories for managing and promoting change. Unprecedented streams of “big-data”, hi-tech interfaces and digital analytic tools unlock the potential to both design new types of cities and re-imaging existing urban environments. The Smart Cities Research Cluster (SCRC) seeks to promote and advance the efficient design, planning and delivery of urban environments and services through the use of information and communication technology with a focus on spatial technologies. A city can be defined as ‘smart’ when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure promote the following four urban characteristics:

  • sustainable economic development
  • a high quality of life
  • wise management of natural resources
  • participatory action and engagement


New Smart Cities such as Songdo City, in South Korea suggest one model of Smart Cities. Another model is represented by the innovative urban ecosystems within older cities, such as NYC and Amsterdam. The research in the cluster is problem focused and aims to change cities for the public good in three ways:

  1. Develop participatory urbanism to empower citizens to interact in new, more efficient and more meaningful ways.
  2. Develop resilient cities through the smart design of sustainable and flexible hi-tech infrastructure and service delivery.
  3. Promote and design cities as healthy, safe and productive environments through the use of smart technologies and evidence based design.


Cluster Convenors: Dr Scott Hawken



Research Projects

Modelling City Futures – A Scenario Planning Approach

Christopher James Pettit


For the first time in the history of civilization there are now more people living in cities than rural localities. Significant population growth is intensifying this transition and placing pressure on our cities. For example in Australia the population is projected to almost double between 2010 and 2050. As part of a Smart Cities agenda there is an increasing need for data driven evidence computer planning tools to support communities, planners, policy-makers in envisioning sustainable, productive and resilient cities. Collaborative planning support system (PSS) tools such as the open source Online What if? (OWI) PSS tool can be used to explore a myriad of future possibilities. Planners and other key actors involved in shaping our cities can create, explore land suitability, land demand and land use allocation scenario for both municipalities and metropolitan areas. Professor Pettit has been leading the developing and application of the Online What if? PSS and has been working the Western Australia Department of Planning in exploring an envelope of future land use scenarios for Perth to Peel metropolitan region using the OWI PSS (Pettit et al. , 2013,2015). The use of scenario planning tools such as What if? offer exciting possibilities in assisting cities plan for their sustainable, productive and resilient future.


Pettit, C.J. Klosterman, R.E., Delaney, P., Whitehead, A, L., Kujala, H.,. Bromage, A., Nino-Ruiz, M. (2015). The Online What if? Planning Support System: A Land Suitability Application in Western Australia, Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy. Vol 8, Issue 2, pp 93-112.

Pettit, C.J. Klosterman, R.E. Nino-Ruiz, M. Widjaja, I., Tomko, M., Sinnott, R. (2013). The Online What if? Planning Support System in Planning Support Systems for Sustainable Urban Development, Eds Geertman, S and Stillwell, J. Springer Publishers, pp 349-362.

Responsive Transport Environments

Matthias Hank Haeusler


This industry-based research project discusses and evaluates media architecture and media facades in the context of public transport embedded with digital technology (ICT technology). It is expensive, politically difficult and time consuming to build new train lines, bus routes and public transport systems. In contrast the efficiency of existing systems can be improved through better transport passenger information. This project proposes a prototype for the delivery of transport information via retrofitting transport stops with sensors, screens, computing components and ICT technologies that collect data within the public transport system, use the data to generate information about the system and feed them back to passengers via personal screens (smart phones) or public screens (media facades). Such feedback systemscreate info-rich interfaces to help make informed travel decisions. The findings of this investigation where communicated via the book ‘Infostructure – A transport research project’, (Freerange Press, 2012) and an edited book ‘Interchanging – Future Scenarios for Responsive Transport Infrastructure Design’ (Spurbuch, 2014).


Gardner, N., Haeusler, M. H., & Tomitsch, M. (2012). Infostructure: A Transport Research Project. Melbourne, Freerange Press. 

Gardner, N. L., Haeusler, M. H., Mahar, B., & Tompson, T. (2014). Interchanging: Responsive transport infrastructures for twenty-first century urban digital culture, Baunach, Spurbuch Verlag.

Sydney’s 3D Economy

Scott Hawken and Hoon Han


The focus of this project is to analyse economic heterogeneity within central Sydney using 3D GIS. Work is aimed at identifying clusters of specific industries in a 3D environment. The work will also produce scientific understanding of mixed-use environments and their relationship with different geographic districts and building types. The generation of heterogeneity metrics and the visualisation of industry clusters produce a fine grain picture of the knowledge based city lacking in both industry and government. Such a picture empowers the synthesis of real-estate innovations, macro-economic policies, and urban design codes to produce competitive global urban centres. 


Hawken, Scott, and Jung Hoon Han. 2017. "Innovation Districts and Urban Heterogeneity: 3D Mapping of Industry Mix in Downtown Sydney." Journal of Urban Design 0(0): 1–23. doi:10.1080/13574809.2017.1301203.

Hawken, S. and Han, H. Industry Clusters, Knowledge Districts, Real Estate Products and Fine Grained Urban Heterogeneity Using 3D GIS: an evidence based perspective for mixed use urban development, In Preparation. 

Adaptation of the STEVE Tool (Screening Tool for Estate Environmental Evaluation) to Sydney conditions

Marta Bescansa and Paul Osmond


The project aims to evaluate a software tool developed by the University of Singapore. The tool can estimate the outdoor thermal comfort (temperature and humidity) performance of new developments based on existing urban form, vegetation and weather data. The results feed into a broader research project with the Universities of South Australia and Melbourne. Stakeholders involved include Sydney, Adelaide and Melbourne city councils and several industry partners around climate change and urban heat island effects. The ultimate objective of the project is to provide evidence-based guidance for policy makers, planners and designers towards sustainable urbanism in Australian urban contexts.


Jusuf, S.K, Wong, N.H., Tan, C.L., Tan, A.Y.K., (2011). STEVE Tool, Bridging the gap between urban climatology research and urban planning process. Proceedings for the International Conference on Sustainable Design and Construction, Kansas City, Missouri, 23-25 March 2011.

African Smart Cities

Rumbi Ebbefeld, Dr Scott Hawken, and Dr Sophia Maalsen


This project investigates the novel use of technology in five of Africa’s smartest cities including Nairobi, Cape Town, Johannesburg, Accra and Lagos and how it contributes to achieving better urban services despite a lack of conventional urban infrastructure. The project specifically explores the potential of technological leapfrogging to replace old or non-existent technology with current versions and how it can be integrated with the social context and stakeholders to place developing cities well on their way to becoming 'smart'.


Hawken, S. and Ebbefeld, Emerging African Smart Cities: smart approaches for leapfrogging infrastructure deficits, In Preparation 



Australia-India Smart Cities Workshops

April 6-7 2017, Sydney | April 24 2017, Chennai | April 27 2017, New Delhi

To download the full program click here.

Smart cities and urban technology innovation have become the new frontier in urban development globally. A review of smart urban ventures in world cities indicates that flexible, scalable projects that advance long-term goals are more successful in improving the liveability and economy of cities than large scale greenfield smart city mega-projects. Digital technologies in the IoT and ICT realms have emerged as key tools in mobilising the urban services and resources necessary for experimental urbanism.  Several world cities have recognised the potential of these technological advances and are looking to invest in scalable interventions that allow a host of local stakeholders to test new concepts before substantial political and financial commitments are made. This informed urbanism enables incremental changes.. Such a process helps cities to embark on an evolutionary planning process driven by collective public decisions. This process can foster public engagement with urban problems in a more immediate and potentially deeper way. 

As digital technologies emerge as a tool for catalysing urban transformations, we at the Smart Cities Research Cluster, UNSW are keen to examine how different private and public entities are using new systems, data and methods to create quick, inexpensive, high-impact changes that revitalise our cities and places and engage local communities to drive long-term change. 

The Smart Cities and Informed Urbanisation Workshop has been conceived as a medium to bring together public leadership, designers, urbanists and digital experts from Australia to engage in a conversation regarding the leading urban transformation experiences in our country. The event will attract a high-level delegation of smart city decision makers from India who are keen to learn about Australia’s capacity in the urban technology sector. The workshop aims to establish durable network for knowledge exchange and co-operation and will facilitate short study tours of select urban renewal projects to promote the sharing of best urban practices and to create opportunities for learning, technology transfer, and trade. 


Speakers for this event include:

  • Meredith Sussex AM, Chair - Ministerial Advisory Council, Fishermans Bend Urban Renewal Area, Melbourne
  • Brett Casson, Digital Infrastructure Leader Asia-Pacific, Autodesk
  • Geoff King, Manager City Strategy, Parramatta City Council
  • Lucinda Hartley, CoFounder at CoDesign Studio and Neighbourlytics
  • David Holden, Associate Director, Kinesis
  • Debolina Kundu, Associate Professor and HUDCO Chair, NIUA, Government of India
  • Catherine Caruana-McManus, Director, Meshed - IoT Integration and Networks
  • S Travis Waller, Professor and Director of the Research Centre for Integrated Transport Innovation, UNSW
  • Sarah Barns, Research Fellow, Institute for Culture and Society, University of Western Sydney


Speakers and Panellist’s in the Chennai workshop include:

  • P W C Davidar (IAS), Principal Secretary, Chairman and MD, Tamilnadu Urban Finance Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd, Government of Tamilnadu
  • Scott Hawken, Lecturer, Faculty of Built Environment and Convenor, Smart Cities Research Cluster, UNSW
  • Sarbeswar Praharaj, Coordinator, Smart Cities and Informed Urbanisation Workshop
  • Prof. Helen Lochhead, Dean, Faculty of the Built Environment, UNSW
  • Christopher Pettit, Professor of Urban Science, Associate Director - City Futures research Centre, UNSW


Speakers and Panellist’s in the New Delhi workshop include:

  • Shri Venkaiah Naidu, Hon’ble Union Minister of Urban Development
  • Dr Bibek Debroy, Member NITI Aayog
  • Shri Arvind Panagariya, Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog, Government of India
  • H.E. Ms Harinder Sidhu, Australian High Commissioner to India
  • Prof. Helen Lochhead Dean, Faculty of the Built Environment, UNSW, Australia
  • Sameer Sharma, Joint Secretary (Smart Cities) Ministry of Urban Development
  • Hoon Han, Associate Professor, Faculty of Built Environment and Convenor, Smart Cities Research Cluster, UNSW  
  • Shri Malay Shrivastav, Principal Secretary Urban Development and Environment Department, Madhya Pradesh
  • Dr. Chetan Vaidya, Director, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.
  • Dr. Scott Hawken, Professor, Faculty of Built Environment and Convenor, Smart Cities Research Cluster UNSW
  • Shri Dharmendra Pratap Yadav, Principal Secretary, Tamil Nadu
  • Shri J.M. Balamurugan CEO, Punjab Municipal Infrastructure Development Company (PMIDC), Punjab
  • Shri Srikanth Vishwanathan, CEO, Janaagraha
  • Shri Neeraj Mandloi, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Urban Development
  • Prof. Christopher Pettit, Professor of Urban Science, Associate Director - City Futures research Centre, UNSW
  • Shri Rajat Kumar, CEO, Naya Raipur Development Authority
  • Shri Manjit Singh, Principal Secretary (Urban Development)
  • Dr. S. Ramachandran, Former Secretary, MoUD
  • Shri Arun Kumar Singh, Principal Secretary, Jharkhand,
  • Shri Nvs Reddy, Managing Director, Hyderabad Metro Rail Limited,
  • Shri Pradeep Singh Kharola, Managing Director, Bangalore Metro Rail Limited, and
  • Shri Ashish Basu, Co-founder Safetipin
  • Ms. Vasuki, Director (SBM), Govt of Kerala
  • Sarbeswar Praharaj, Coordinator - Smart Cities and Informed Urbanisation Workshop
  • Dr. Ajay Katuri, Lead Specialist Urban Planning, Risk & Resilience, Taru
  • Prof. Illa Gupta, Head of Department, Department of Architecture and Planning, IIT Roorkee
  • Debolina Kundu, Associate Professor, NIUA
  • Ms. Leonie Muldoon, Minister Commercial and Senior Trade and Investment Commissioner, Austrade
  • Tanya Shanti Spisbah, First Secretary Trade and Economic, Australian High Commission in India

We welcome you to Smart Cities and Informed Urbanisation workshop to share emerging ideas on smart city potentials and challenges.

Assoc. Prof. Hoon Han and Dr. Scott Hawken - Conveners of the Smart Cities Research Cluster, UNSW

Sarbeswar Praharaj - Coordinator, Smart Cities and Informed Urbanisation Workshop

For sponsorship and partnership opportunities please contact Sarbeswar Praharaj on +61 449 572 480 and

For general inquiries please email or

The Smart Cities Research Cluster UNSW would like to thank our sponsors and collaborating partners for their generous support and contributions. 


Principal Sponsor:

Major Partners:



Smart Cities and Urban Innovation Symposium

June 1-2 2016, Sydney


How can smart technology and urban design enhance the innovative potential of urban places? Explore cutting-edge smart city concepts from around the world and their relevance to Sydney, Australia’s innovation capital - this is all on the agenda, for June 1-2 when international and local smart city experts will meet in Sydney, Australia.

The event brings together architects, designers, scholars along with civic and industry leaders to discuss the opportunities for future smart cities. The conference is a unique professional development and networking opportunity to learn about international smart city innovations and local moves to construct hi-tech urban precincts.

The event will bring international keynote speakers from leading smart cities around the world including Korea and Singapore in conversation with local smart cities experts, government and technology startups. The workshops and symposium will provide opportunities to learn from architects, designers, businessmen, government officials and academics about specific smart city topics of importance to the economic, technological and cultural development of Australian cities with a special focus on Sydney’s “Silicon Harbour”. 

The Smart Cities International Workshop and Symposium will be held in collaboration and promoted as part of Vivid Sydney and the Media Architecture Biennale 2016. Vivid is the largest tourist event in Sydney and MAB16 is the premier media architecture event internationally aiming to strengthen the connections between people and the places they share. 

“The Smart Cities Symposium is a great place to learn how leading smart cities around the world are making their cities more competitive, more liveable and more inclusive through technology. It provides opportunities to meet new partners and collaborators – including industry partners, urban thought leaders, startups and technologists. Sydney is at a critical moment in its development and engagement with digital innovation – this event is the perfect opportunity to join a future-shaping conversation.” 

Dr Scott Hawken and Dr Hoon Han, co-convenors of the International Symposium on Smart Cities and Urban Innovation

The event is for urban professional, civic leaders, digital scholars and citizens interested in how smart technologies can transform today’s cities. It will showcase

  • new projects and collaborations
  • new products, projects and ideas
  • connect local and international smart city audiences and speakers
  • explore futures for Sydney’s “Silicon Harbour” and visions for the Bay’s Precinct.  

The Smart Cities Research Cluster UNSW would like to thank our sponsors for their generous support and contributions.

Major Partner:


Platinum Sponsor:



“UrbanGrowth NSW is proud to support the UNSW Smart Cities and Urban Innovation  Symposium. Our projects are unique, challenging, and provide once in a lifetime opportunities to deliver world class urban transformation outcomes for Sydney and New South Wales. We  champion innovation, creativity, clever thinking, technology and design excellence. We work collaboratively with a range of leading universities to harness the best minds and research to help shape Sydney’s future as a globally competitive city.”

For more information on UrbanGrowth NSW visit

Open Cities | Open Data Workshop

October 2 2015, Sydney

Conveners Dr Scott Hawken and Dr Hoon Han


The Open Cities Open Data workshop presents a day of expert speakers and panel discussion on the potential for digital technologies to make cities more accessible, democratic and inclusive.

The expanding digital footprint of cities presents new opportunities for better understanding and communicating in our urban world. Three streams of data are currently available to citizens, researchers and communities. These include crowd sourced data, data compiled by businesses into online databases, and data released in an open format by government agencies. Workshop participants will discuss how these three streams of open data can contribute to making cities more inclusive and open. Achieving these ambitious goals is made challenging with conflicting desires for urban anonymity, sociability, privacy and transparency. The workshop will cover a variety of critical perspectives on the challenges, dangers and opportunities of achieving open cities through the use of open data.

Keynote speakers include:

On the Completeness of Open City Data for Measuring City Indicators
Professor Chris Pettit, UNSW
Professor of Urban Science at UNSW Built Environment,
Urban Informatics Initiative UNSW BE

Urban Entrepreneurship, Youth and Open Data: Providing New Career Pathways for Young People
Professor Marcus Foth, QUT
Director Urban Informatics Research Lab, Professor in Interactive & Visual Design, Creative Industries Faculty at Queensland University of Technology.

Setting Data Free with “Adult Supervision” via APIs.
Greg Stone, ARUP
Director of Digital Strategy for the Asia Pacific Region

Open Data for Open Cities: Building Australia’s Open Data Landscape
Pia Waugh
Director for Gov 2.0 and Data, Technology and Procurement Division
Working for the Australian Government CTO
Department of Finance, Australia

Research Papers

Call for Chapters

Open Cities | Open Data: Collaborative Cities in the Information Era

The UNSW Smart Cities Research Cluster is preparing an edited book entitled Open Cities | Open Data: Collaborative Cities in the Information Era to be published in mid 2018 by Palgrave Macmillan.  The editors call for authors to submit chapters presenting innovative ways to open-up data and to use it in new applications to create smarter, more open cities. Each chapter is to be 5000-6000 words (excluding references) and will be categorised into one of four thematic sections:  (1) Collaborative Cities; (2) Transparent Cities; (3) Adaptive Cities; (4) Liveable and Sustainable Cities.  

Expressions of Interest (chapter title and abstract) are due by Monday 15 May to 
The publication schedule is as follows:
  • Submit EOI: 15th May 2017
  • Chapter Submission Date:  30th Oct 2017
  • Chapter Peer Review:  1st Nov - 15th Dec 2017 (please note, all chapters will be blind peer reviewed)
  • Chapter Decision:  20th Dec 2017
  • Author submission of revised chapters:  28th Feb 2018
  • Publication:  Mid 2018

Download call for chapters here.


Call for Papers for the Special Issue of City, Culture and Society

Smart Cities and Urban Innovation

As the world embarks on a “Smart City Boom” digital technology is being promoted as the answer to a multitude of urban challenges and wicked problems. How such technology is invented, evolves and diffuses, within and between cities, is not a linear process but demonstrates a wide range of approaches and results emblematic of the complexity and diversity of urban systems globally. Smart cities are often presented and investigated as a phenomenon pursued by advanced economies and driven by corporate tech giants. This issue of City, Culture and Society will look beyond such perceptions to investigate the social nuances, human behaviours and cultural distinctions within the emerging smart city phenomenon. This special issue asks how rapid innovations in smart cities will influence the design, planning and management of cities, expanding dialogues beyond a singular technical emphasis to engage in the multi-dimensional challenge of building smarter cities to further social and environmental sustainability and foster more creative cities.

Participants are invited to submit a tentative title of the paper with a max 300-word abstract to the guest editors Dr Hoon Han and Dr Scott Hawken at by May 30, 2016.

More Information about the journal is available here

Download the Expressions of Interest here


Open Cities | Open Data Workshop

The following presentations are from the Smart Cities Workshop on “Open Cities| Open Data” held on Oct 2, 2015.

Keynotes- The Urban Future of Open Data

Parallel Session A - Collaborative Cities

Parallel Session A - Transparent Cities

Parallel Session B - Adaptive Cities

Parallel Session B - Liveable Cities

Research Papers

The publications on this section present an introduction to the concept of Smart Cities and a guide to students and academics wishing to participate in research and activities with the Smart City Cluster.

  • Allwinkle, S. & Cruickshank, P. (2011) Creating smart-er cities: An overview, Journal of Urban Technology, 18(2), 1-16.
  • Batty, M. (2013) Big data, smart cities and city planning, Dialogues in Human Geography, 3(3), 274-279.
  • Batty, M. (2013) The new science of cities. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press.
  • Batty, M., Axhausen, K. W., Giannotti, F., Pozdnoukhov, A., Bazzani, A., Wachowicz, M., Ouzounis G., & Portugali, Y. (2012) Smart cities of the future, The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 214(1), 481-518.       
  • Bekkers, V. & Homburg, V. (2007) The Myths of E-Government: looking beyond the assumptions of a new and better government. The Information Society, 23(5), 373-382.
  • Bertot, J. C., Jaeger, P. T., & Grimes, J. M. (2010) Using ICTs to create a culture of transparency: E-government and social media as openness and anti-corruption tools for societies, Government Information Quarterly, 27(3), 264-271.
  • Brabham, D. C. (2009) Crowdsourcing the Public Participation Process for Planning Projects, Planning Theory, 8(3), 242-262.
  • Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P. (2011) Smart Cities in Europe, Journal of Urban Technology, 18(2), 65-82.
  • Carter, L. & Bélanger, F. (2005) The Utilization of E‐Government Services: citizen trust, innovation and acceptance factors, Information Systems Journal, 15(1), 5-25.
  • Chun, S. A., Shulman, S., Sandoval, R., & Hovy, E. (2010) Government 2.0: Making connections between citizens, data and government, Information Polity, 15(1), 1.
  • Deng, W., Prasad, D. K., & Osmond, P. W. (2011) Improving sustainability decision-making information at neighbourhood level: A new framework for performance assessment based on China’s Small Residential District. The international Journal of Environmental, Cultral, Economic and social sustainability, 7(2), 235-252.
  • Evans-Cowley, J., & Hollander, J. (2010) The New Generation of Public Participation: internet-based participation tools, Planning, Practice & Research, 25(3), 397-408.
  • Foth, M. (2011) From Social Butterfly to Engaged Citizen: urban informatics, social media, ubiquitous computing, and mobile technology to support citizen engagement. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press.
  • Foth, M. (Ed.). (2008) Handbook of Research on Urban Informatics: the practice and promise of the real-time city, New York, IGI Global.
  • Fountain, J. E. (2004), Building the Virtual State: information technology and institutional change, Washington, Brookings Institution Press.
  • Graham, S., & Marvin, S. (2002) Telecommunications and the City: electronic spaces, urban places. New York, Routledge.
  • Greenfield, A. (2010) Everyware: The dawning age of ubiquitous computing. Berkeley, New Riders.
  • Gudes, O., Kendal, E., Yigitcanlar, T., Han, J., & Pathak, V. (2011) Developing a Competitive City through Healthy Decision-Making. In M. Bulu (Ed.), City Competitiveness and Improving Urban Subsystems: Technologies and Applications (pp. 107-121). Hersey: Information Science Reference.
  • Haeusler, M. (2014) Interchanging – Future designs for responsive transport environments (first ed.). N. Gardner, M. Haeusler, & B. Mahar (Eds.), Bamberg, Germany: Spurbuch.
  • Haeusler, M., Tomitsch, M., & Tscherteu, G. (2012) New Media Facades - A Global Survey (1 ed.). Ludwigsburg, Germany: avedition.
  • Han, H. H., Hawken, S., & Williams, A. (2015) SMART CCTV and the management of urban space. In Handbook of Research on Digital Media and Creative Technologies. IGI.
  • Hollands, R. G. (2008) Will the Real Smart City Please Stand Up? intelligent, progressive or entrepreneurial? City, 12(3), 303-320.
  • Janssen, M., Charalabidis, Y., & Zuiderwijk, A. (2012) Benefits, Adoption Barriers and Myths of Open Data and Open Government, Information Systems Management, 29(4), 258-268.
  • Kingston, R. (2007) Public Participation in Local Policy Decision-Making: the role of web-based mapping, The Cartographic Journal, 44(2), 138-144.
  • Kitchin, R. (2014) The Data Revolution: big data, open data, data infrastructures and their consequences. Los Angeles, Sage.
  • Kitchin, R. (2014) The Real-Time City? Big data and smart urbanism, GeoJournal, 79(1), 1-14.
  • Lee, J., & Zlatanova, S. (2008) A 3D Data Model and Topological Analyses for Emergency Response in Urban Areas, Geospatial Information Technology for Emergency Response, 143, C168.
  • Linders, D. (2012) From E-Government to We-Government: defining a typology for citizen coproduction in the age of social media, Government Information Quarterly, 29(4), 446-454.
  • Mayer-Schönberger, V., & Cukier, K. (2013) Big Data: a revolution that will transform how we live, work, and think. New York, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  • Nam, T. & Pardo, T. A. (2011) Smart City as Urban Innovation: focusing on management, policy, and context, In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (pp. 185-194), ACM.
  • Pentland, A. (2014) Social Physics: how good ideas spread-the lessons from a new science. Victoria, Scribe.
  • Schaffers, H., Komninos, N., Pallot, M., Trousse, B., Nilsson, M., & Oliveira, A. (2011) Smart Cities and the Future Internet: Towards Cooperation Frameworks for Open Innovation, The Future Internet, 6656, pp 431-446
  • Seltzer, E. & Mahmoudi, D. (2012) Citizen Participation, Open Innovation, and Crowdsourcing: challenges and opportunities for planning, Journal of Planning Literature, 28(1), pp. 3–18.
  • Townsend, A. M. (2013) Smart Cities: big data, civic hackers, and the quest for a new utopia, New York, WW Norton & Company.
  • West, D. M. (2004) E‐government and the Transformation of Service Delivery and Citizen Attitudes, Public Administration Review, 64(1), 15-27.
  • Xiao, P., Ding, L., & Prasad, D. (2014) Modelling Adaptive Building Energy Systems and Human Behaviour: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach. In Grand Renewable Energy 2014 Proceedings. Tokyo Japan.
  • Zhao, W., Ding, L., Cooper, P., & Perez, P. (2014) Smart Home Electricity Management in the Context of Local Power Resources and Smart Grid. Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, vol. 2 (no. 1), 73-79.  
  • Zlatanova, S., & Li, J. (Eds.). (2008) Geospatial Information Technology for Emergency Response, London, Taylor and Francis.
  • Zlatanova, S., Rahman, A. A., & Shi, W. (2004) Topological Models and Frameworks for 3D Spatial Objects, Computers & Geosciences, 30(4), 419-428.
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