People

Professor Michael Ostwald

Professor of Architecture

DSc, PhD, BArch (Hons 1), BSc (Arch) — AIA (Architecture), PIA (Urban Design)

My work is focussed on improving the ways people use, understand and create buildings and spaces. Using mathematics and computing, I examine architecture and urban space, measuring, analysing and modelling a range of human factors to make our built environment more responsive and supportive.
 
Behind all my work is the belief that buildings and their surrounds aren’t just the empty places we move through every day, they have the power to inspire, energise and motivate us, shaping our emotions. Providing designers with the right tools and methods to approach these human perceptions and behaviours has led me to use mathematics, computing and neuroscience to develop new ways of understanding and improving our buildings and spaces.
 
I am passionate about supporting the built environment professions, and my research and teaching in this field has had international impact through senior academic and industry positions in Hong Kong, Europe, North America and Australasia. I have been awarded multiple international prizes and honours for my research.
Room: 
1019
Building: 
Red Centre West Wing
Kensington
Bio: 

Dr. Michael J. Ostwald is Professor of Architecture at the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney (Australia). He was previously Professor and Dean of Architecture at the University of Newcastle (Australia), Professorial Research Fellow at Victoria University Wellington (New Zealand) and Professorial Fellow at the Università di Pisa (Italy). He has held academic positions in Hong Kong and North America and been a visiting Professor and Research Fellow at RMIT University (Melbourne, Australia), an Australian Research Council (ARC) Future Fellow at Newcastle and a visiting fellow at ANU (Australia), MIT (USA), HKU (China) and UCLA (USA).

Professor Ostwald’s qualifications, training and industry experience are in architecture, urban design and legal assessment. While working for architectural and urban design practices in Australia, USA, Singapore and UK he completed a range of projects in the community, health and commercial sectors. In 2003 the Premier’s Department of NSW appointed him to be an assessor of state significant development and an advisor on design quality. Since then he has served on planning and assessment committees and boards for multiple NSW councils and state government bodies.

Research Activities: 

Professor Ostwald’s research uses computational methods to analyse, optimise or better understand architectural and urban space. His research typically involves modelling or examining the complex relationships between design and human behaviour and cognition. Michael has a doctorate (PhD) in architectural history and theory and a higher doctorate (DSc) in design computing and mathematics. Under the auspices of the Byera Hadley international fellowship he completed postdoctoral research at the CCA (Montreal, Canada), the Loeb (Harvard, USA) and UCLA (Los Angeles, USA). Michael is Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Nexus Network Journal: Architecture and Mathematics (Springer) and on the editorial boards of ARQ (Cambridge) and Architectural Theory Review (Taylor and Francis). He has authored more than 430 scholarly publications, including 20 books. His recent publications include the two-volume Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future (Springer, 2015), co-edited with Kim Williams; The Fractal Dimension of Architecture (Birkhäuser, 2016), co-authored with Josephine Vaughan; and The Mathematics of the Modernist Villa (Birkhäuser 2018), co-authored with Michael J. Dawes. From 2018 Michael is Series Editor of Birkhäuser’s Mathematics and the Built Environment (a research monograph series) and Topic-Editor for Springer-Nature’s Mathematics in Art, Architecture and Design. His practice-based, non-traditional research outputs (NTROs) include over 100 published, exhibited and executed design works.

Grants: 

Professor Michael J. Ostwald has been a Chief Investigator on more than 50 competitive research grants totaling over $6,300,000 (Aus) in funding from the ARC, Carrick, OLT and ALTC in Australia, the Graham and Getty foundations in the USA and the EU. He has completed industry-based research worth almost $1,000,000 (Aus), including Linkage grants and contract research for the Stockland Group (Retail), BHP Billiton (Energy and Mining), Lend Lease (Retail), Civil and Civic (Affordable Housing) and the GEO Group (Infrastructure). In 2008 Michael was awarded an ARC Indigenous Discovery Project, in 2009 he was awarded an ARC Future Fellowship and in 2016 he was awarded the Australia–Korea Council international fellowship (with Dr JuHyun Lee and Prof. Ning Gu).

Awards: 

A nationally award winning and commended teacher (CAUT 1996/7, TIETE 1997), in 2016 the Australian Institute of Architects (AIA) awarded Professor Michael Ostwald the Neville Quarry Medallion. This is the highest honour an academic can receive from the architectural profession. It was awarded for exceptional international leadership in architectural research and education. He been awarded five international prizes or commendations for research and multiple best paper awards. Michael has also been awarded three national citations for design research since 1995, and as part of teams he has been short-listed for prizes or highly commended on four occasions.

Supervision Area: 

Professor Michael J. Ostwald has supervised 27+ research higher degree completions and four post-doctoral fellowships. The PhDs and the post-doctoral projects have been in the fields of architectural design, architectural history and theory, computational design and computer science. These projects have employed a range of methods including: space syntax and isovists; shape grammars and generative design; fractal analysis; survey and observational analysis; critical theory and design.

Michael is interested in supervising PhD students who are: (i) seeking to improve our understanding of historic or famous buildings and spaces using computational and/or empirical means; (ii) develop new knowledge about human cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses to space and form. Some specific PhD research areas he is interested in developing are listed below.

Possible PhD Topics of Areas

Human Perceptions of Architectural Complexity

In architectural history, theory and design, a wide range of claims have been made about human responses to formal and spatial complexity. For example, one popular theory maintains that humans are drawn to examine complex scenes more closely, while another argues that humans find complex forms uncomfortable or unsettling. Despite such claims, there is relatively little empirical and computational evidence supporting any of these theories. This research topic combines a survey of perceptual or attitudinal responses to architecture with computational analysis of space.

Prospect-refuge theory, a computational approach

One of the most well-known explanations for human psychological responses to environments is offered by ‘prospect-refuge theory’. This theory seeks to explain why certain combinations of spaces (rooms) and forms (walls) feel particularly safe and others do not. Using computational methods this research area seeks to: (i) test famous architectural cases which allegedly conform to prospect-refuge conditions; (ii) test historic building styles to use as benchmarks for research in this area and; (ii) develop a computational test for the prospect-refuge properties of architecture. Some famous architects whose works have been linked to prospect-refuge theory include Alvar Aalto, Frank Lloyd Wright and Glenn Murcutt.

Spatial Cognition for Aging and Dementia Design

Since the 1950s researchers have published results pertaining to human spatial understanding, but the vast majority have considered this topic entirely from a ‘normative’ or ‘standard’ perspective. Yet, some of the most important problems in the developed world are associated with designing for aging and dementia, two conditions which are known to have an impact on spatial cognition. Understanding, modelling and predicting non-standard cognitive responses to space and form is a relatively undeveloped field of research, and then adapting this new knowledge to design is even less developed. This research has several components which are worthy of a PhD including spatial assessment for cognitive impairment and alternative models of wayfinding and spatial competence.

Fractal Analysis of Architecture and Design

Fractal dimension analysis is a method for calculating the average complexity of an object, form or set of data. 2D fractal analysis has been used to study many aspects of architectural and urban form since the early 1990s. A wide range of applications of this method are possible to testing the development or interpretation of historic and contemporary building forms. This research approach is ideal for a person with an interest in both the theoretical (historical, philosophical or critical) and mathematical interpretation of architecture.

In addition, 3D fractal analysis has only rarely been undertaken in any field, and its application in architecture is largely unknown. A research project to develop this method requires a person with programming and modelling expertise to work with the early stages of developing, testing and validating a 3D version of fractal analysis for measuring the complexity of the built environment.

Supervising: 

A mathematical analysis of Christopher Alexander’s A Pattern Language.

Dementia design assessment: analyzing the quality of aged-care planning.

Counterculture architecture: A phenomenological reading of altered states.

Braun Identity: a semiological analysis of the social and cultural imperative in Braun’s product design and its advertising.  

Publications:
Books

Ostwald MJ; Dawes MJ, 2018, Mathematics of the Modernist Villa: Architectural Analysis Using Space Syntax and Isovists, BIRKHAUSER VERLAG AG, 10.1007/978-3-319-71647-3

Ostwald MJ; Vaughan J, 2016, The Fractal Dimension of Architecture, Birkhäuser

Williams K; Ostwald MJ, 2015, Architecture and mathematics from antiquity to the future: Volume I: Antiquity to the 1500s, 10.1007/978-3-319-00137-1

Williams K; Ostwald MJ, 2015, Architecture and mathematics from antiquity to the future: Volume II: The 1500s to the future, 10.1007/978-3-319-00143-2

Book Chapters

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ; Gu N, 2016, 'Cognitive challenges for teamwork in design', in Collaboration and Student Engagement in Design Education, pp. 55-75, 10.4018/978-1-5225-0726-0.ch003

Lee J, 2016, 'Stage Orientalism and Asian American Performance from the Nineteenth into the Twentieth Century', in Srikanth R; Song MH (ed.), CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF ASIAN AMERICAN LITERATURE, CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, pp. 55-70, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000385516100003&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a

Ostwald MJ, 2015, 'Aperiodic tiling, penrose tiling and the generation of architectural forms', in Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future: Volume II: The 1500s to the Future, pp. 459-471, 10.1007/978-3-319-00143-2_31

Ostwald MJ; Vaughan J; Tucker C, 2015, 'Characteristic visual complexity: Fractal dimensions in the architecture of frank lloyd wright and le corbusier', in Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future: Volume II: The 1500s to the Future, pp. 339-354, 10.1007/978-3-319-00143-2_22

Ostwald MJ, 2015, 'Ethics and geometry: Computational transformations and the curved surface in architecture', in Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future: Volume II: The 1500s to the Future, pp. 633-647, 10.1007/978-3-319-00143-2_43

Ostwald MJ; Williams K, 2015, 'Mathematics in, of and for architecture: A framework of types', in Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future: Volume I: Antiquity to the 1500s, pp. 31-37, 10.1007/978-3-319-00137-1_3

Ostwald MJ; Williams K, 2015, 'Relationships between architecture and mathematics', in Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future: Volume I: Antiquity to the 1500s, pp. 1-21, 10.1007/978-3-319-00137-1_1

Ostwald MJ; Williams K, 2015, 'The revolutionary, the reactionary and the revivalist: Architecture and mathematics after 1500', in Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future: Volume II: The 1500s to the Future, pp. 1-27, 10.1007/978-3-319-00143-2_1

Ostwald MJ, 2013, 'Politics and the deliquescence of scale: The Columbaria of Brodsky and Utkin', in Scale: Imagination, Perception and Practice in Architecture, pp. 206-217, 10.4324/9780203722909

Gu N; Ostwald MJ, 2012, 'Computational methods and technologies: Reflections on their impact on design and education', in Computational Design Methods and Technologies: Applications in CAD, CAM and CAE Education, pp. 412-419, 10.4018/978-1-61350-180-1.ch023

Ostwald MJ, 2012, 'Systems and enablers: Modeling the impact of contemporary computational methods and technologies on the design process', in Computational Design Methods and Technologies: Applications in CAD, CAM and CAE Education, pp. 1-17, 10.4018/978-1-61350-180-1.ch001

Chalup SK; Ostwald MJ, 2010, 'Anthropocentric biocybernetic approaches to architectural analysis: New methods for investigating the built environment', in Built Environment: Design, Management and Applications, pp. 121-146

Ostwald MJ; Chapman M, 2010, 'The erotics of fieldwork in Learning from Las Vegas', in Architecture and Field/Work, pp. 22-34, 10.4324/9780203839447

Ostwald MJ; Vaughan J, 2010, 'The mathematics of style in thearchitecture of frank lloyd wright: Acomputational, fractal analysis of formal complexity in fifteen domestic designs', in Built Environment: Design, Management and Applications, pp. 63-88

Chapman M; Ostwald M, 2009, 'Curated desires: Film, photography and the visual transformation of urban space in Surrealism', in Curating Architecture and the City, pp. 39-50, 10.4324/9780203876381

Journal articles

Ostwald MJ; Dawes MJ, 2019, 'The Spatio-Visual Geometry of the Hollyhock House: A Mathematical Analysis of the ‘Wright Space’ using Isovist Fields', Nexus Network Journal, 10.1007/s00004-018-00422-3

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ; Gu N, 2018, 'A Justified Plan Graph (JPG) grammar approach to identifying spatial design patterns in an architectural style', Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, vol. 45, pp. 67-89, 10.1177/0265813516665618

Williams K; Ostwald MJ, 2018, 'Architectus ingenio and architectus verborum', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 20, pp. 305-308, 10.1007/s00004-018-0393-9

Ostwald MJ; Williams K, 2018, 'Beyond Homo Ludens: Architecture and Mathematics', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 20, pp. 5-8, 10.1007/s00004-018-0370-3

Yu R; Gu N; Ostwald M, 2018, 'Evaluating creativity in parametric design environments and geometric modelling environments', Architectural Science Review, vol. 61, pp. 443-453, 10.1080/00038628.2018.1512043

Yu R; Ostwald M; Gu N, 2018, 'Mathematically defining and parametrically generating Traditional Chinese Private Gardens of the Suzhou Region and Style', Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, vol. 45, pp. 44-66, 10.1177/0265813516665361

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ, 2018, 'Measuring cognitive complexity in parametric design', International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, 10.1080/21650349.2018.1555492

Yu R; Ostwald MJ, 2018, 'Spatio-visual experience of movement through the Yuyuan Garden: A computational analysis based on isovists and visibility graphs', Frontiers of Architectural Research, vol. 7, pp. 497-509, 10.1016/j.foar.2018.08.003

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ; Gu N, 2017, 'A Combined Plan Graph and Massing Grammar Approach to Frank Lloyd Wright’s Prairie Architecture', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 19, pp. 279-299, 10.1007/s00004-017-0333-0

Dawes MJ; Ostwald MJ, 2017, 'Christopher Alexander’s A Pattern Language: analysing, mapping and classifying the critical response', City, Territory and Architecture, vol. 4, 10.1186/s40410-017-0073-1

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ; Sher WD; Lee H, 2017, 'Developing strategic planning schemes for urban regeneration through mixed-use development in Seoul', International Planning Studies, vol. 22, pp. 205-225, 10.1080/13563475.2016.1243042

Ostwald MJ, 2017, 'Digital research in architecture: Reflecting on the past, analysing the trends, and considering the future', arq: Architectural Research Quarterly, vol. 21, pp. 351-358, 10.1017/S135913551800009X

Williams K; Ostwald MJ, 2017, 'Entering a Third Decade of ‘Nexus: Relationships Between Architecture and Mathematics’', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 19, pp. 235-238, 10.1007/s00004-017-0349-5

Dosen AS; Ostwald MJ, 2017, 'Lived space and geometric space: comparing people’s perceptions of spatial enclosure and exposure with metric room properties and isovist measures', Architectural Science Review, vol. 60, pp. 62-77, 10.1080/00038628.2016.1235545

Williams K; Ostwald MJ, 2017, 'Manifestations of Geometry in Architecture', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 19, 10.1007/s00004-017-0332-1

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ; Lee H, 2017, 'Measuring the spatial and social characteristics of the architectural plans of aged care facilities', Frontiers of Architectural Research, vol. 6, pp. 431-441, 10.1016/j.foar.2017.09.003

Vaughan J; Ostwald MJ, 2017, 'The comparative numerical analysis of nature and architecture: A new framework', International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics, vol. 12, pp. 156-166, 10.2495/DNE-V12-N2-156-166

Amini Behbahani P; Gu N; Ostwald M, 2017, 'Viraph: exploring the potentials of visibility graphs and their analysis', Visualization in Engineering, vol. 5, 10.1186/s40327-017-0056-z

Amini Behbahani P; Ostwald MJ; Gu N, 2016, 'A syntactical comparative analysis of the spatial properties of Prairie style and Victorian domestic architecture', Journal of Architecture, vol. 21, pp. 348-374, 10.1080/13602365.2016.1179661

Dosen AS; Ostwald MJ, 2016, 'Evidence for prospect-refuge theory: a meta-analysis of the findings of environmental preference research', City, Territory and Architecture, vol. 3, 10.1186/s40410-016-0033-1

Williams K; Ostwald MJ, 2016, 'Seed Concepts in Architecture and Mathematics', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 18, pp. 333-335, 10.1007/s00004-016-0301-0

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ; Gu N, 2016, 'The language of design: Spatial cognition and spatial language in parametric design', International Journal of Architectural Computing, vol. 14, pp. 277-288, 10.1177/1478077116663350

Yu R; Gu N; Ostwald M, 2016, 'The mathematics of spatial transparency and mystery: using syntactical data to visualise and analyse the properties of the Yuyuan Garden', Visualization in Engineering, vol. 4, 10.1186/s40327-016-0033-y

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ; Gu N, 2015, 'A syntactical and grammatical approach to architectural configuration, analysis and generation', Architectural Science Review, vol. 58, pp. 189-204, 10.1080/00038628.2015.1015948

Lee JH; Gu N; Ostwald MJ, 2015, 'Creativity and parametric design? Comparing designer’s cognitive approaches with assessed levels of creativity', International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, vol. 3, pp. 78-94, 10.1080/21650349.2014.931826

Ostwald MJ; Ediz Ö, 2015, 'Measuring Form, Ornament and Materiality in Sinan’s Kılıç Ali Paşa Mosque: an Analysis Using Fractal Dimensions', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 17, pp. 5-22, 10.1007/s00004-014-0219-3

Yu R; Ostwald MJ; Gu N, 2015, 'Parametrically Generating New Instances of Traditional Chinese Private Gardens that Replicate Selected Socio-Spatial and Aesthetic Properties', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 17, pp. 807-829, 10.1007/s00004-015-0263-7

Ostwald MJ, 2015, 'Symbolic, Aesthetic and Generative Applications', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 17, pp. 349-352, 10.1007/s00004-015-0257-5

Çekmiş A; Hacihasanoǧlu I; Ostwald MJ, 2014, 'A computational model for accommodating spatial uncertainty: Predicting inhabitation patterns in open-planned spaces', Building and Environment, vol. 73, pp. 115-126, 10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.11.023

Yu R; Gu N; Ostwald M; Gero JS, 2014, 'Empirical support for problem-solution coevolution in a parametric design environment', Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing: AIEDAM, vol. 29, pp. 33-44, 10.1017/S0890060414000316

Ostwald MJ, 2014, 'Intersections Between Architecture and Mathematics', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 16, pp. 247-249, 10.1007/s00004-014-0200-1

Dawes MJ; Ostwald MJ, 2014, 'Prospect-Refuge theory and the textile-block houses of Frank Lloyd Wright: An analysis of spatio-visual characteristics using isovists', Building and Environment, vol. 80, pp. 228-240, 10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.05.026

Dawes MJ; Ostwald MJ, 2014, 'Testing the wright space: Using isovists to analyse prospect-refuge characteristics in Usonian architecture', Journal of Architecture, vol. 19, pp. 645-666, 10.1080/13602365.2014.965722

Ostwald MJ, 2014, 'The event, politics and dissent: Alain badiou and the utopian provocations of Brodsky and Utkin', Architecture and Culture, vol. 2, pp. 12-25, 10.2752/175145214X13796096691409

Yu R; Gu N; Ostwald M, 2013, 'Comparing Designers' Problem-Solving Behavior in a Parametric Design Environment and a Geometric Modeling Environment', BUILDINGS, vol. 3, pp. 621-638, 10.3390/buildings3030621

Ostwald MJ; Dawes M, 2013, 'Differentiating between Line and Point Maps Using Spatial Experience: Considering Richard Neutra's Lovell House', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 15, pp. 63-81, 10.1007/s00004-012-0134-4

Ostwald M; Vaughan J, 2013, 'Differentiating the whites: Using fractal analysis to investigate the visual properties of the architecture of John Hejduk and Peter Eisenman', Empirical Studies of the Arts, vol. 31, pp. 21-43, 10.2190/EM.31.1.b

Williams AP; Brewer G; Ostwald M; Le Goff R, 2013, 'Profiling consumer attitudes to retail spaces: Shopping centres as 'place'', International Journal of Interdisciplinary Organizational Studies, vol. 7, pp. 41-52, 10.18848/2324-7649/CGP/v07i02/59386

Dosen AS; Ostwald MJ, 2013, 'Prospect and refuge theory: Constructing a critical definition for architecture and design', International Journal of Design in Society, vol. 6, pp. 9-23

Ostwald MJ, 2013, 'The fractal analysis of architecture: Calibrating the box-counting method using scaling coeffi cient and grid disposition variables', Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, vol. 40, pp. 644-663, 10.1068/b38124

Ediz O; Ostwald MJ, 2012, 'The Süleymaniye Mosque: A computational fractal analysis of visual complexity and layering in Sinan's masterwork', Architectural Research Quarterly, vol. 16, pp. 171-182, 10.1017/S1359135512000474

Yu R; Gu N; Ostwald M, 2012, 'USING SITUATED FBS ONTOLOGY TO EXPLORE DESIGNERS' PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR IN PARAMETRIC ENVIROMENT', JOURNAL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION, vol. 17, pp. 271-282, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000210029500017&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a

Yu R; Gu N; Ostwald M, 2012, 'Using situated FBS ontology to explore designers' patterns of behavior in parametric environments submitted: July 2012', Electronic Journal of Information Technology in Construction, vol. 17, pp. 271-282

Wong ASW; Chalup SK; Bhatia S; Jalalian A; Kulk J; Nicklin S; Ostwald MJ, 2012, 'Visual gaze analysis of robotic pedestrians moving in urban space', Architectural Science Review, vol. 55, pp. 213-223, 10.1080/00038628.2012.688013

Ostwald MJ, 2011, 'A Justified Plan Graph Analysis of the Early Houses (1975-1982) of Glenn Murcutt', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 13, pp. 737-762, 10.1007/s00004-011-0089-x

Ostwald MJ, 2011, 'The Mathematics of Spatial Configuration: Revisiting, Revising and Critiquing Justified Plan Graph Theory', Nexus Network Journal, vol. 13, pp. 445-470, 10.1007/s00004-011-0075-3

Williams AP; Ostwald MJ; Askland HH, 2011, 'The relationship between creativity and design and its implication for design education', Design Principles and Practices, vol. 5, pp. 57-71

Vaughan J; Ostwald MJ, 2010, 'A quantitative comparison between wright's prairie style and triangle-plan Usonian houses using fractal analysis', Design Principles and Practices, vol. 4, pp. 333-344, 10.18848/1833-1874/CGP/v04i04/37931

Ostwald MJ, 2010, 'Ethics and the auto-generative design process', Building Research and Information, vol. 38, pp. 390-400, 10.1080/09613218.2010.481172

Ostwald MJ; Vaughan J, 2010, 'The mathematics of domestic modernism (1922-1934): An analysis of correlations between façade complexity, orientation, address and permeability', Design Principles and Practices, vol. 4, pp. 143-162

Ostwald MJ, 2010, 'The politics of fractal geometry in Russian paper architecture: The intelligent market and the cube of infinity', Architectural Theory Review, vol. 15, pp. 125-137, 10.1080/13264826.2010.495447

Vaughan J; Ostwald MJ, 2010, 'Using fractal analysis to compare the characteristic complexity of nature and architecture: Re-examining the evidence', Architectural Science Review, vol. 53, pp. 323-332, 10.3763/asre.2010.0024

Chalup SK; Henderson N; Ostwald MJ; Wiklendt L, 2009, 'A computational approach to fractal analysis of a cityscape's skyline', Architectural Science Review, vol. 52, pp. 126-134, 10.3763/asre.2009.0015

Chapman M; Ostwald MJ, 2009, 'Disfigured Ground: Architectural space and representation in the creative practices of Dada and Surrealism', SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ART HISTORY, vol. 24, pp. 67-74, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000443821400005&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a

Chapman M; Ostwald MJ, 2009, 'Unstable ground: Scientific frictions in the analytical techniques of Learning from Las Vegas', Architectural Science Review, vol. 52, pp. 245-253, 10.3763/asre.2009.0031

Chapman M; Ostwald M, 2006, 'Automated architecture: Violence and nihilism as strategies of 'making' in the tactics of Coop Himmelb(l)au', Architectural Research Quarterly, vol. 10, pp. 241-248, 10.1017/S1359135506000340

Ostwald MJ, 2004, 'Freedom of form: Ethics and aesthetics in digital architecture', Philosophical Forum, vol. 35, pp. 201-220, 10.1111/j.0031-806X.2004.00170.x

Ostwald MJ, 2003, 'Seduction, subversion and predation: Surface characteristics', Architectural Design, vol. 73, pp. 74-80

Ostwald M, 2003, 'Seduction, subversion and predation: Surface characteristics (The On-Line Training Centre for Victoria University of Technology, architecture by Lyons)', ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, pp. 75-80, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000182366600014&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a

Schiller J; Ostwald M; Chen SE, 1994, 'Implementing a problem-based, distance education undergraduate course in construction management', Distance Education, vol. 15, pp. 300-317, 10.1080/0158791940150209

Conference Papers

Lee JH; Gu N; Taylor M; Ostwald M, 2018, 'Rethinking and designing the key behaviours of architectural responsiveness in the digital age', in CAADRIA 2018 - 23rd International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia: Learning, Prototyping and Adapting, pp. 359-368

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ; Yu R, 2017, 'Investigating visibility properties in the design of aged-care facilities', in CAADRIA 2017 - 22nd International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia: Protocols, Flows and Glitches, pp. 365-374

Gu N; Yu R; Ostwald M, 2016, 'Computational analysis and generation of traditional Chinese private gardens through space syntax and parametric design', in CAADRIA 2016, 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia - Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, pp. 95-104

Phare D; Gu N; Ostwald M, 2016, 'Representation in collective design: Are there differences between expert designers and the crowd?', in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 59-68, 10.1007/978-3-319-46771-9_8

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ; Gu N, 2015, 'Multi-cultural design communication: Exploring both cognitive and linguistic characteristics in the design process', in CAADRIA 2015 - 20th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia: Emerging Experiences in the Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture, pp. 531-540

Yu R; Behbahani PA; Ostwald M; Gu N, 2015, 'Wayfinding in traditional Chinese private gardens: a spatial analysis of the Yuyuan garden', in Crawford RH; Stephan A (eds.), LIVING AND LEARNING: RESEARCH FOR A BETTER BUILT ENVIRONMENT, UNIV MELBOURNE, Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Design, Fac Architecture Bldg & Planning, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, pp. 931-939, presented at 49th International Conference of the Architectural-Science-Association, Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Design, Fac Architecture Bldg & Planning, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, 02 - 04 December 2015, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000381380100090&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a

Vaughan J; Ostwald MJ, 2014, 'Measuring the significance of façade transparency in Australian regionalist architecture: A computational analysis of 10 designs by Glenn Murcutt', in Architectural Science Review, pp. 249-259, 10.1080/00038628.2014.940273

Yu R; Gu N; Ostwald M, 2013, 'A method for comparing designers' behavior in two enviroments: Parametric and geometric modeling', in Open Systems - Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA 2013, pp. 479-488

Lee JH; Ostwald MJ; Gu N, 2013, 'Combining Space Syntax and Shape Grammar to investigate architectural style: Considering Glenn Murcutt's domestic designs', in 2013 International Space Syntax Symposium

Dosen AS; Ostwald MJ, 2013, 'Methodological characteristics of research testing prospect-refuge theory: A comparative analysis', in Architectural Science Review, pp. 232-241, 10.1080/00038628.2013.809689

Ostwald MJ; Vaughan J, 2013, 'Representing architecture for fractal analysis: A framework for identifying significant lines', in Architectural Science Review, pp. 242-251, 10.1080/00038628.2013.810549

Hong K; Chalup SK; King RAR; Ostwald MJ, 2013, 'Scene perception using pareidolia of faces and expressions of emotion', in Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Creativity and Affective Computing, CICAC 2013 - 2013 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2013, pp. 79-86, 10.1109/CICAC.2013.6595224

Lee JH; Gu N; Ostwald MJ; Jupp J, 2013, 'Understanding cognitive activities in parametric design', in Communications in Computer and Information Science, pp. 38-49, 10.1007/978-3-642-38974-0-4

Bhatia S; Chalup SK; Ostwald MJ, 2013, 'Wayfinding: A method for the empirical evaluation of structural saliency using 3D Isovists', in Architectural Science Review, pp. 220-231, 10.1080/00038628.2013.811635

Jalalian A; Chalup SK; Ostwald MJ, 2012, 'Analysis of pedestrian spatial behaviour using GDTW-P-SVMs', in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 10.1109/IJCNN.2012.6252584

Yu R; Gu N; Ostwald M, 2012, 'Situated creativity inspired in parametric design environments', in ICDC 2012 - 2nd International Conference on Design Creativity, Proceedings, pp. 221-230

Jalalian A; Chalup SK; Ostwald MJ, 2011, 'Agent-agent interaction as a component of agent-environment interaction in the modelling and analysis of pedestrian visual behaviour', in Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending - Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA 2011, pp. 555-564

Jalalian A; Chalup SK; Ostwald MJ, 2011, 'Architectural evaluation of simulated pedestrian spatial behaviour', in Architectural Science Review, pp. 132-140, 10.1080/00038628.2011.582372

Askland HH; Ostwald MJ; Williams A, 2011, 'Assessing creativity: Proposition', in DS 69: Proceedings of E and PDE 2011, the 13th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, pp. 275-280

Ostwald MJ; Vaughan J; Chalup SK, 2011, 'Data flow and processing in the computational fractal analysis method', in Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending - Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA 2011, pp. 493-502

Askland HH; Williams A; Ostwald MJ, 2011, 'Finding common ground - A disciplinary approach to creativity', in DS 69: Proceedings of E and PDE 2011, the 13th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, pp. 127-132

Askland HH; Williams A; Ostwald M, 2011, 'Teaching creative design: A challenging field', in Proceedings of the DESIRE'11 Conference on Creativity and Innovation in Design, pp. 149-156, 10.1145/2079216.2079237

Jalalian A; Chalup SK; Ostwald MJ, 2010, 'Intelligent evaluation of urban streetscape designs by analysing pedestrian body dynamics', in 3rd International Workshop on Advanced Computational Intelligence, IWACI 2010, pp. 442-447, 10.1109/IWACI.2010.5585134

Vaughan J; Ostwald MJ, 2010, 'Refining a computational fractal method of analysis: Testing Bovill's architectural data', in New Frontiers - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design in Asia, CAADRIA 2010, pp. 29-38

Ostwald MJ; Vaughan J, 2009, 'Calculating visual complexity in Peter Eisenman's architecture', in 2009 TAIWAN CAADRIA: Between Man and Machine - Integration, Intuition, Intelligence - Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, pp. 75-84

Ostwald MJ; Tucker C; Chalup S, 2009, 'Line segmentation: A computational technique for architectural image analysis', in ACADIA 09: reForm(): Building a Better Tomorrow - Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, pp. 153-158

Ostwald MJ; Vaughan J; Chalup S, 2008, 'A Computational analysis of fractal dimensions in the architecture of eileen gray', in ACADIA 08: Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, pp. 256-263

Chalup SK; Hong K; Ostwald MJ, 2008, 'A face-house paradigm for architectural scene analysis', in 5th International Conference on Soft Computing as Transdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSTST '08 - Proceedings, pp. 397-403, 10.1145/1456223.1456304

Chalup SK; Clement R; Tucker C; Ostwald MJ, 2007, 'Modelling architectural visual experience using non-linear dimensionality reduction', in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 84-95

Chalup SK; Clement R; Marshall J; Tucker C; Ostwald MJ, 2007, 'Representations of streetscape perceptions through manifold learning in the space of hough arrays', in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Symposium on Artificial Life, CI-ALife 2007, pp. 362-369, 10.1109/ALIFE.2007.367818